Surveys the history of Modern Africa from the era of the trans-Atlantic slave trade to the present and places special emphasis on sub-Saharan Africa. It approaches the history of the continent through consideration of the nature and impact of European intrusion into African societies and African responses to European imperialism. Moreover, the course examines how independent African nations have addressed the legacies of their history and the challenges independence has posed for African nations. Special topics include Apartheid, the struggle against segregation, African women, feminism, development, and the difficulty in creating viable democracies and stable economies in the late twentieth-century. FILA general education: world cultures.